CB-Radio DX HOW-TO by 21-SD-333 Goran                    v.1.0.1

To learn more about how to get 'On the Air' on the 11-Meter band read
The CB-Radio DX HOW-TO Here you find some nice hints about working DX
on the CB-Radio band (11-Meter band)

This is an official version of the 'CB-Radio DX HOW-TO' it is to be
distributed free of charge by members and supporting 'followers' of
the CB-Radio community, It is 'amed' to give some nice information
on the subject to new operators and 'beginners' in general.

  - Getting started
  - Your First CB-Radio Station
  - What to buy or use
  - 11-meter Band-Plan
  - Modes of modulation
  - Your Call-Sign
  - Joining a CB-Radio group
  - Information about DX-Groups
  - The Q-Code
  - International spelling alphabet
  - Signal Report
  - Sample signal report
  - Your first CB-Radio DX - QSO
  - Listen!
  - Answer on a CQ-Call
  - Making a CQ-Call
  - Making a QSK (Break)
  - Your Log-Book
  - Computer Log-Book
  - QSL Exchange
  - Your QSL-Card
  - Activations

Getting started
From the start in mid 70ths CB-DX has developed into an wide known hobby
Mostly the operators just make contact to new or old DX-Friend, hawing a nice
conversation exchanging information about our experiences of Radio-Nature or
life in general also makes the day, every time. 11-Meter radio is realy a
nice hobby! 

What´s it about
The CB-Band(Citizens Band) also called 'Free band' span the frequency
spectrum from 26MHz and strait up to 28MHz. On these frequencies Radio
operators from around the world make contact and friendship.

These frequencies is on the top of the shortwave band (goes up to 30MHz)
This makes it very interesting due to a number of natural phenomena known
as 'skip-conditions' or just 'skip' - Reflecting Layers in the stratosphere,-
Aurora a.s.o. - operators on 11-Meter band uses these phenomena to make 
long-distance radio contacts,-usually not possible in normal conditions.

Skip conditions was first discovered in the late 50th. From the early
70ths and later, CB-DX has developed into an wide known hobby, the number
of stations on the band is huge! - Almost any country or territory on
the globe can be heard on the band. 

To learn more about 11-Meter band conditions and propagation read the -
11-Meter 'Propagation HOW-TO' 
  @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio

The 11-Meter "Unofficial" Band-Plan
About usage of the many different frequencies between 26MHz and 28MHz
and some interesting frequencies Refere to The '11-Meter Unofficial Band-Plan' 
  @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio

Your First CB-Radio Station
A complete station for working on 11-Meter band in not to complicated.-
You need first a CB-Radio of some kind and an antenna,- thats al. Then
of cause it could get very advanced also,- if you wishes to.

First,- To get started you need a CB-Radio of some type,- to get you started
right there is some things you might think about.

Commonly there is 'tree' major types of different CB-Radio's

  Type 1: Uses channels to decide operating frequency. Numbers of
          channels is commonly minimum 40 (1 band) maximum 240.
          In radios with more then 40 channels they are divided into
          'bands' consisting of 40-80 channels.
          These CB-Radio´s does not cover al frequencys continuasly, they
          'jump' in steps of 10Khz or even sometime 20Khz
          In most cases these type of radio does not have the possibility
          to work on '0' frequencies such as 27.510Mhz 
          These CB-Radio´s often do not have any frequency display
          Only a simple display for channel number.
          These radios is often older / used / second hand.
          Modulation types may be AM/FM and i some cases also SSB

          Example type 3 radios: HAM Multimod I,II,III Major

  Type 2: May use channels divided into band as type 1 radios but have
          also the addvantage to be able to 'tune' the covered frequency 
          range continuasly.
          Most of these type 2 radios have a frequency display. 
          Modulation types is mostly AM/FM/SSB/CW

          Example type 3 radios: Galaxy Saturn
                                 President George, Lincoln
                                 Uniden 2830
                                 Somercamp FT-2000DX

  Type 3: Does not use channels.
          Tunes the covered frequency range continuasly.
          Handle any type of modulation AM/FM/SSB/CW

          Example type 3 radios: Kenwood / Yaesu / Icom HF Radios o.e.

Output Power
Standard output power for type 1 and 2 radios is 5-20W AM and 10-50W SSB
The output for type 3 radios is often as high as 50W AM and 100W SSB 

What to buy or use
This is a simple question! Buy the radio you can afford! Off cause it is
better to use an more advanced radio,- but remember that a good type 1
radio in good hands and with some good conditions could out perform the
most expensive type 3 radio any time!.

Second,- A good antenna should cower the decided operating frequency with an 
SWR (Standing Wave Ratio) less then 1:1,3 - This is not to hard to get,- but
you might have to decide if you´r about to work around 26.285Mhz or 27.555Mhz 
call frequencys,- working both with the same antenna without an antenna tuner
(matching device) is not to think about cince the frecuency coveradge of an
normal CB-Antenna is about 200Khz (or 40 channels) There is however antennas
that covers a wider range.

Omni directional vs. directional antennas.
The Omni directional antenna is almost always an vertical polarized antenna.
It is preferable to use vertical polarized antennas when working ground-wave,-
however a good Omni directional / vertical polarized antenna is a good start
also for DX-Usage.

When working DX the directional antenna is the best choice, due to meny reasond:

  You boost both incomming and outgoing signals.
  You make less QRM for other stations on same or close frequency
  Also able to 'shield' QRM from back or side of antenna to boost reception.
  There is also other reasons...

Horizontal vs. Vertical antenna  
Why is an horizontal polariced antenna better for DX-Contacts? You could ask,-
The answer is: When using a Vertical antenna the transmitted RF-Signal tend to
'stick' to the ground, thereby called 'Ground-Wave' this is a good thin if you
want to make big-signals localy,- effects only your contacts in the distance of
about 70-200Km Maximum.

When working DX-Stations you don't need an strong 'Ground-Wave' you desire is that
maximum RF-Signal should leave the Ground and bounce into the stratosphere and 'skip'
down in an DX-Country. This effect is much more eminent on an horizontal polarized

Putting it together

To get more information about grounding and lightning protection
read the 'Grounding HOW-TO'
  @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio

Problems with Interferance.

To get more information about how to avoid and solve problems with interference,- 
Read the 'Interference HOW-TO'
  @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio

Modes of modulation
The modulation types used on the 11-Meter band is mostly SSB
(Single Side Band) and FM (Frequency modulation) some stations also
uses CW (Continues Wave/Morse code) The AM (Amplitude Modulation)
is not used. 

  Modulation types.
  Modulation type    Sub type     Usage / Notes
  AM                 none         Don´t use it! Makes QRM!
  FM                 none         Best for local QSO use!
                                  Makes QRM if used for DX
  SSB                LSB / USB    Best for DX QSO use!

Some data modes is also used on the 11-meter band, they are using SSB-
Modulation as carrier. (USB/LSB) Packet stations is often heard on 27.235 
(ch.24 Scandinavian stations mostly) other Modes/Frequensys refere to 
The 11-Meter "Unofficial" Band-Plan.
  @ URL:http:// 

Your Call-Sign
There is really no "standard" method to get a call sign, first you simply 
make one up for your self! It´s as easy as that! But Here is some general
"hints" to think about when you create a call sign for your first contact. 

- The first part (numbers) in a CB-call sign refere to the country prefix
  list, ther is one prefix list that is close to standard on the 11-Meter 
  band, this is the AT-List (From Alfa Tango DX Group - Asti/Italy) 
  Refere to: DXCC Country Prefix list
  @ URL:http:// 

- The second part (Letters) in a CB-call sign is commonly the "Group" 
  letters, therefore if your about to create a call sign of your own, try
  to chouse letters that is not used by any DX-Group . 

- The last part (numbers) in a CB-call sign is commonly the mebership 
  number in the group according to the second part of the call sign.

Joining a CB-Radio group
Also a part of CB-Radio that is really hard to explain, but not very
complicated in real life! To join a DX-Group commonly isn´t that hard, 
in general most groups requests an application from you, some form of 
effort is often asked from you, you might have to work X-numbers of
stations belonging to the group you want to join, or something like that. 
Some groups don't accept applications, they only invite CB-Operators 
strictly by recommendations from other group members. 

Information about DX-Groups
To get information about a DX-Group simply ask the station you talk to
about information,- most operators strongly 'promote' their respective
DX-Group and gladly sends you any needed information an most certain an
application-form of thair DX-Group,- many DX-Groups now also have
information available on the internet. 

The Q-Code.
The International Q-Code is also used on the CB-Radio band (11-Meters).
Using the Q-Code simplify making contact if conditions is pore, it also
shortens the time you have to be "on the air", Use of Q-Code on the
CB-Radio band is close to mandatory

Some Common Q-Codes used on the CB-Radio band. 
  CQ   Seek You! Used for calling on stations/regions or general calls 
  QSL  Confirmation of complete contact by radio 
  QSO  A completed contact by radio 
  QRM  Interference from other RF-Signals
  QRN  Noice / Static or atmosphere Interference
  QRT  Stop your transmission / Or: I am about to stop my transmission
  QSY  Change to other frequency.
  QRZ  What is your Call-Sign? / Or: My Call-Sign is... 
  QSB  Non stabile signal, the signal strenght is going up and down... 
  QTH  Position from where the transmission is made 
  QSK  Brake in on an ongoing QSO 

Want More Q-Codes? Refere to the Q-Code list:
  @ URL:http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio

International spelling alphabet.
The use of a common spelling alphabet makes life on the band much more
simple, use of the International spelling alphabet is common on the
CB-Band, However local variations is also used. The suggestion is to use
the International spelling alphabet.

(It´s the same as the alphabet used for International
Aviation communication) 

International spelling alphabet.
  A - Alfa     B - Bravo    C - Charlie  D -Delta
  E - Echo     F - Foxtrot  G - Golf     H - Hotel
  I - India    J - Juliet   K - Kilo     L - Lima
  M - Mike     N - November O - Oscar    P - Papa
  Q - Qubeq    R - Romeo    S - Sierra   T - Tango
  U - Uniform  V - Victor   W - Wiskey   X - X-Ray
  Y - Yankee   Z - Zulu

Signal Report
Always give signal report to the opposite station, the signal report is
splited into two parts. 

Part one: Signal Readability - A scale from 0(Zero) to 5(Five)
  Radio 5  Exelent signal 100% Readable
  Radio 4  Good signal 80-100% Readable
  Radio 3  Some difficulty to read about 60-80% Readable
  Radio 2  Big problems to read, Less then 50% readable
  Radio 1  Very hard to read about 20% Readable
  Radio 0  No modulation - 0% Readable

Part two: Signal strength - A scale from 0(Zero) to 9(Nine) 
It is the same as "S" units on most standard signal-meters on the CB-Radio 

  Signal 9+ Very Strong Signal (Stable/No QSB)
  Signal 9  Very Strong Signal
  Signal 8  Still Strong Signal
  Signal 7  Strong Signal
  Signal 6  Medium Strong Signal
  Signal 5  Medium Strong Signal
  Signal 4  Not so Strong Signal
  Signal 3  Quite weak Signal
  Signal 2  Very weak Signal
  Signal 1  Almost No Signal
  Signal 0  No Signal

Sample signal report.
You are reciving a signal from a CB-Station, your signal-meter is reading
seven (7) "S"-Units and the modulation (talk) is 100% readable, but the 
signal is going down to Five (5) "S"-Units from time to time, 
your signal report could be:

  Sample 1: "Your Signal report is 57 / 55 with some QSB"

Your first CB-Radio DX - QSO
Time to make the first contact, tune your CB-Radio to an International
Call-frequency (27.555Mhz or 26.285Mhz is a good place to start) Listen 
carefully, there is no need for you to make your own CQ-Calls if somebody
that you wishes to contact is already calling CQ on the frequency. 
Simply answer that Call instead of making your own Call (And QRM) 

The key to successful Dx is to listen, many interesting DX stations often 
don´t answer on CQ-Calls, and they might not make any CQ-Calls them self.
You simply need to listen and wait, don´t disturb nice conversations, 
listen and learn instead! If you disturb (Makes QRM) for a nice DX-Station
the chance to work this station in MINIMUM. 

  * Remember! You don´t want to be known as an QRM-Station! *

Answer on a CQ-Call
(General Calls or a call for your prefix/region only!)
Only answer Calls for your country/region (Prefix) or General Calls, 
Answering on Calls for other countries/regions (prefix) than your own is 
not good, it only makes QRM and the chance for you to make QSO with the
calling station is only getting smaller!. 

To answer a CQ-Call (General-Call or Call for your prefix) - Simply call
the opposite station giving his/hers call-sign first followed by Yours. 

Also! Try to give a QSY frequency as soon as possible, don´t make the
QSO on a Call-Frequency. Important! Remember to check for a free QSY
frequency first. The QSY-Frequency have to be within MAXIMUM 100Khz +/-
from the start frequensy due to problems with SWR.

The station with the call sign "3KP000" is making a general call, you 
wishes to make a QSO with this station, you answer the call, here is
tree example answer calls. 

  Sample 1: 3KP000, 3KP000 this is [Your Callsign] QSY frequency 
            [New frequency] QSL

  Sample 2: 3KP000, 3KP000 - [Your Callsign] Calling, How copy? QSL

  Sample 3: 3KP000, 3KP000 - [Your Callsign] Standing by on 
            [New frequency] for possible OSQ 

Change to the new frequency and make a new call for the oposite station, 
or wait for the oposite station to call on you. 

OR! - And ewen better method, make a call and give QSY frequency
[New frequency] at once! (Recommended) 

Making a CQ-Call
Go to an call-frequency and listen first,- if someone else is calling 
and you wishes to talk to that station simply answer and make a QSY 
(Change frequency) 

If the frequency is clear (No stations calling) You can make a call
for any station or an region or country. 

  Sample 1: CQ CQ CQ DX this is [Your Callsign], [Your Callsign] QSY to 
            [New frequency]

  Sample 2: CQ CQ CQ for [Region or Division] this is [Your Callsign], 
            [Your Callsign] QSY to [New frequency] 

Hint! If low conditions you might repeat your [Your Callsign] and 
[New frequency] a coupple of times more,- but trye not to make your
call to long,- 20-40 seconds at the most!! 

If you are calling on a call-frequency,- Try to give a QSY frequency as 
soon as possible, don´t make the QSO on a Call-Frequency. Important! 
Remember to check for a free QSY frequency first. 

Making a QSK (Break)
Making a QSK on an ongoing QSO should be done with great restriction,- 
for example if the conditions is unusual,- if you simply wish to make a
QSO with one of the stations in QSO, you should wait until the two 
stations ended thair QSO!! 

NOTE! Only make QSK if the matter concernes both stations in QSO

Used with restriction you could make an QSK only to get aknollage and
inform the two QSO stations that you are interested in QSO and that you
are standing by for QSO after they finished their ongoing QSO. 

   New DXCC
   :-) = //Great SMILE!//
   This is my reaction when a new DXCC-Country is
   worked on the band. However, hawing a nice
   QSO with a new or old DX-Friend, exchanging
   information about our experiences of DX-Nature
   or life in general also makes the day, every
   time. 11-Meter radio is realy a nice hobby! 

Your Log-Book
Keeping a log of your DX-Radio contacts is a great idea, it simplifies
QSL-Excange and you dont have to remember everything in your head! Here
is a suggestion about what to write in your Log-book.

What to write in your Log-Book.
In your log, you could write about contacts to make it possible to
remember who you have contacted,- to keep track of QSL-exchange and maby
to help you count your 'dxcc-score' a.s.o.

  Call             Name/handle         (*postal-adress for QSL-exchange)
  QSO Time / date  QSO frequency       Signal report 
  QRM/QRN/QSB      Mode of modulation

Also a sample log-book page in MS-Excel 97 and Adobe .pdf format ready 
for you to use!. 
  @ URL:http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio/log_book.xls
  @ URL:http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio/log_book.pdf

*The postal code is only needed if your about to send a QSL to this 

QSL Exchange
The final courtesy of QSO/DX is a QSL. It is common to exchange QSL-Cards,
If you promisse to send a QSL-Card, then do´it! - If you don´t want to 
exchange QSL simply notify the opposit station that you don´t exchange cards!. 

  * Remember! You don´t want to be on any "BLACK-LIST" as a bad QSL! *

Your QSL-Card.
Some hints about what to put on your QSL-Card. It is always nice to get
a personal QSL-Card,- look at the samples, you might get some ideas
about how to design your own card, many CB-Radio clubs also sell there
"Group"-QSL cards. 

Of cause your QSL-Card is a 'letter of friendship' and therefore should
not make any kind of offence towards anyone. It should not contain any
material, text or images with subject such as: political, religious, sexual
a.s.o. that can be miss interpreted or is amed to affect the receiver in
negative meaning, intentional or unintentional.

This is the minimum of information to put on your QSL-Card. 

  QSO information.
  Your Call-Sign   Your first name     our QTH 
  QSO Time / date  QSO frequency       Signal report 
  QRM/QRN/QSB      Mode of modulation

  Tranceiver       RF Output(W)        Antenna 

Some Sample CB-Radio QSL Cards from around the world (Al continents)
  @ URL:http://

Postal adresses
Remember that CB-DXing is NOT allowed in most countries! Therefore always
handle Postal-adresses with care! - If you got the adress 100% the first
time, dont repeat it back ower the CB,- just state that you got the 
adress 100% - If possible, obtain the QSL-Adress via a 'Call-book' or 


This is a special event on the band,- usually a number of fellow radio
operators forming a 'team' to travels in to another country or territorium
(DXCC) or an island (IOTA) to activate it.

Normaly with special call-sign and also confirming the contact with 
special QSL-Card. Most interesting Activations is made from reare
DXCC-Countrys. (These is not usual, and werry hard to work.)

DXCC Activations.
The activation should be made from a country or territorium void in
DXCC-Country list, At the moment 340 countrys or territories qualify for DXCC.

IOTA Activations.
'Islands On the Air'
The activation should be made from an island that is voit by IOTA-Rules.

LOTA Avtivation
'Lighthouses On the Air'
The activation is made from a Lighthouse,- this is a new form of 

Running an Activation of your own.

11-Meter              Corresponding wave lenght to the 27MHz frequency
                      Waveleght is calculated [Speed of light]/[Freqyency]
51                    Popular used 'greeting' term used when finish of contact
55                    Often used in combination with the other 'good numbers'
73                    51=Best regards 55=  
88                    73=Hope to hear you again  88=Love and kisses
                      These good numbers' originates from early morse operators
Activation            Term used to identify Radio-Station normaly not working
                      within present location, often other DXCC-Country or IOTA-Island
                      Normaly activations is done within DXCC-Countrys that normaly
                      isn´t heard on the band, however these days activations is also
                      done from 'Regions' and/or 'Countys' within a country,- also 
                      from 'club' stations special events, celebrations a.s.o.            
CB                    U.S.A 'Citizens Band' within the frequency range of 26MHz to 28MHz
CB-Radio              An combined receiver and transmitter contained within the
                      same cover made for usage within the frequency range of 
                      26MHz to 28MHz
Coaxial cable         A type of cable used for RF-Signals, it has two conductors.
                      The center conductor is for the RF-Signal,- An outer conductor
                      is functioning as 'shield' to contain the RF-Signal whitin
                      the Coaxial-cable.
  Skip-conditions     Status of any natural phenomena that is used in order
                      to make an long distance radio contact.
                      (Reflecting Layers in the stratosphere, Aurora a.s.o.)
  Working-Conditions  Equipment,- radio antenna a.s.o. used for the contact.
DX                    Used to categorize Long Distance contact. Outside your country.
DXCC                  The 'DX-Country Club',- now used as term for determine and
                      separations of countrys or territories making separate
                      'radio-country' or 'prefix' to be counted as a 'DXCC'
                      At the moment 340 countrys or territories qualify for DXCC.
FreeBand              Often used term to identify the frequency range of 26MHz to 28MHz
IOTA                  Islands On The Air
LOTA                  Lighthouses On the Air
Modulation            States the method used to encode in this case an Audio signal (voice)
                      on to an RF-Signal carrier.
  FM                  Frequency Modulation
  AM                  Amplitude Modulation
  LSB                 Lower Side Band (Single Side Band Modulation)
  USB                 Upper Side Band (Single Side Band Modulation)
  CW                  Continuous Wave (None modulated carrier)
Polarisation          States the angle of radiated RF-Signal emitted from any 
                      antenna,- In these case normaly Vertical or Horizontal.
Propagation           Status of any natural phenomena that is used in order
                      to make an long distance radio contact. Se also 'Skip-Conditions'
                      (Reflecting Layers in the stratosphere, Aurora a.s.o.)
SWR                   'Standing Wave Ratio' Used to determine miss matching in
                      the transmission line eq= Radio - Feedline - Antenna.
                      Messures miss matching i terms of ratio. SWR 1:1 = 100% match. 
Tranceiver            An combined receiver and transmitter contained within the
                      same cover, now equals to normal amateur radio equipment
                      for usage on HF-Band 0.5-30MHz
QSL-Card              A receipt of an contact (QSO) sent by normal mail
                      to verify the contact.

In some countries it is illegal (Not allowed) to use CB-Radio for DX 
communication, so you need to check with local laws and regulations 
before starting with CB-Radio DX.

Local (Country bound) Laws and regulations often cowers the usage of 
CB-Radio in the following related/linked considerations.

- Usage of specific freqensies in the range of 26-28Mhz
  (National HF-Band plan)
- Usage of official CB-Radio chanals (Citizen Band, 23ch, 40ch etc.)
- Usage of different types of modulation, often only FM 
  (other types of modulations is often not allowed)
- Usage of directional antennas.
- Restrictions considering RF-output effect. (Often no more then 4Watt) 
- Restrictions considering usage of CB-Equipment for communication only
  between stations in the same country, and/or between one stationary 
  and one mobile or maritime-mobile station (not for use between two 
  stationary/base stations) 

You must understand that this document is provided on 'As-Is' basis,- 
the author or distributor of this document can not take any responsibility 
for errors or omissions,- nor can any clames be made due to damages or 
other offence caused by use of information in this document.

Al information is amed as 'just information'.

The use of this information is strictly in the hands of the reader.

This is an official version of the 'CB-Radio DX HOW-TO' it is to be
distributed free of charge by members and supporting 'followers' of
the CB-Radio community, It is 'amed' to give some nice information
on the subject to new operators and 'beginners' in general.

The text and material in this document is copyrighted and own by
the Author,- However distribution or copying of the document is
alowed and even encouraged with this in mind:

- You must distribute or copy the document in total!
- Distribution or copying of the document in part is NOT allowed!
- Top and bottom lines reading 'The CB-Radio DX HOW-TO by -
  (21SD333) Goran' and '(c)1998-2001 By Author 21SD333 Goran'
  may not be removed!
- You are not allowed to 'ADD' - 'REMOVE' or 'CHANGE' any part
  or text contained within this document. 

CB-Radio DX HOW-TO               (c)1999-2001 By 21-SD-333 Goran
(c) Al rights reserved!
*** End of document ***

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